A Pictorial History of Deaf Britain. Winsford, UK: Deafprint. Janzen, Terry. Space rotation, perspective shift, and verb morphology in ASL. Cognitive Linguistics 15, Johnston, Trevor. Spatial syntax and spatial semantics in the inflection of signs for the marking of person and location in Auslan. International Journal of Sign Linguistics 2, From archive to corpus: transcription and annotation in the creation of signed language corpora. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 15, Sydney, Australia: Macquarie University.
Chicago Linguistic Society 31, Kita, Sotaro ed. Lee, Robert G. Role shift in ASL: A syntactic look at direct speech. Lee eds. Liddell, Scott K. Real, surrogate, and token space: Grammatical consequences in ASL. Blended spaces and deixis in sign language discourse.
In David McNeill ed. Indicating verbs and pronouns: Pointing away from agreement. Grammar, gesture and meaning in American Sign Language. Agreement disagreements.
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Theoretical Linguistics 37, Gesture in sign language discourse. Journal of Pragmatics 30, Lillo-Martin, Diane. The point of view predicate in American Sign Language. Loew, R. PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota. Verb Agreement. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. McBurney, Susan L. Pronominal reference in signed and spoken language: Are grammatical categories modality-dependent? In Richard P.
Meier, Richard P. Person deixis in ASL. In Susan D. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Metzger, Melanie. Constructed dialogue and constructed action in American Sign Language. In Ceil Lucas ed. Miles, Dorothy.
The middle finger in American Sign Language – Strong Language
London: BBC Books. Miller, John. Directional verbs. In Signing Savvy. The influence of typology and modality on the acquisition of language. First Language 26, The Syntax of American Sign Language. Padden, Carol. Verbs and role shifting in American Sign Language. In Carol Padden ed.
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New York: Garland Press. The grammar of space in two new sign languages. In Diane Brentari ed. Perniss, Pamela. Use of sign space. Topics in Cognitive Science 7, Poizner, Howard, Edward S. What the hands reveal about the brain. Recent advances in cognitive linguistics have been essential to making progress in this area. Mental space theory has emerged and undergone considerable growth and development during the past two decades Fauconnier , ; Fauconnier and Turner ; Turner In particular, developments in the blending of mental spaces has proved essential in making progress in understanding the conceptual underpinnings of the ASL spatial data.
Cognitive grammar Langacker , , b has also come into existence and developed during the same time period. Although developed to account for vocal language phenomena, mental space theory and cognitive grammar provide the conceptual elements necessary for understanding directional signs in ASL.
These two theories developed independently and each treats different aspects of meaning. The sign language data have caused me to conceive of meaning construction as a process involving mental space mappings of the type proposed in mental space theory built around a central core of grammatically encoded meanings of the type found in cognitive grammar. The analyses in this book treat directional uses of signs as gradient and gestural phenomena driven by grammar and by meaning construction.
Attempting to characterize the use of space in ASL involves an integration of grammar, gesture, and gradience in the process of constructing meaning by means of mental space mappings. The resulting interconnected conceptual structures are the means that ASL, and perhaps spoken languages more generally, use to communicate. My initial intention in writing this book was to begin with a comprehensive review of existing morphemic treatments of spatial phenomena.
It seemed important to describe the problems with existing proposals fully before presenting my own work. By the middle of I had written chapters consisting of more than one hundred and fty pages reviewing that work. At that time I discussed my plans for the book with Brita Bergman. She convinced me that it would be very tedious for a potential reader to wade through such an extensive review of. Based on that conversation I discarded the extensive reviews and restructured the book.
As a result, this book presents a new way of looking at ASL and its grammar with only minimal reference to and criticism of previous work. My reviews and criticisms of previous approaches date back to , and readers interested in reading that work can nd published reviews of much of it in Liddell , , , a and Liddell and Metzger It is my hope that organizing the book in this way will allow the reader to proceed through the new material with relatively few interruptions.
Readers already familiar with American Sign Language and its grammer may skip chapters 1 and 2, and begin reading with chapter 3. Such readers may still nd chapter 2 useful as a reference in cases where my treatment of grammatical issues in subsequent chapters differs from currently accepted views.
Readers unfamiliar with the grammar of a sign language should not skip chapters 1 and 2.see url
The information in those chapters provides the grammatical background needed to understand subsequent chapters. The treatment of ASL grammar in chapter 2 is purposely extensive since I do not want readers of chapters 3 through 10 to come away with the mistaken view that it is gesture, rather than grammar that is responsible for expressing meaning in ASL.
Those chapters attempt to demonstrate that, in ASL, meaning is expressed through the interaction of grammar, gradience, and gesture. A number of the gures included in this book have been reproduced by the kind permission of various organizations. I therefore give thanks here to the following in respect of these: The Berkeley Linguistics Society for Figures 2. Figure 3.
Figure 5. Liddell, copyright with permission from Elsevier Science. Many ASL signers have contributed to this work by allowing their signing to be videotaped for analysis, by discussing possible semantic interpretations of videotaped data, or by providing native speaker insights about ASL grammar. I have also included video data from a teleconference conducted by Marie Philip, who passed away during the writing of the book.